Information Center: Environment, 2004

6 results


John E Fa, Paul J Johnson, Jef Dupain, Juan Lapuente, Pamela KoÌster, and David W Macdonald
November 2, 2004

Bushmeat markets can reflect the impact of hunting in large geographical areas, but efficient and adequate sampling strategies are needed. Five bushmeat markets in West and Central Africa were used to simulate the performance of different sampling regimes. The studied markets (n= 863 days) varied in animal carcasses and number of species recorded. In our simulations, we varied number of days sampled and their temporal distribution using a variant of the Monte Carlo methodology. Three sample strategies were considered: (1) unconstrained random sampling; (2) random sampling of start-points, where the n days sampled are a sequential block following the randomly selected start-point and (3) sampling blocked by season. No substantial differences between standard sampling theory and our simulations were present. However, only a large sample of markets will allow useful inferences on a regional scale and timing and coordination of sampling may be highly influential. Sampling in blocks of days was as efficient as simple random sampling in estimating species richness, but not carcass volume. This may indicate that, even with seasonality in market compositions, or irregular influences, the temporal pattern as described by presence/absence varies much less than does the volume of carcasses. Shorter sampling periods perform poorly in estimating species richness. The relationship between % species richness and overall carcass volume may predict the sampling effort required to estimate market species richness based on volume, when a large enough sample of markets becomes available. Similarly, a larger sample of markets would reveal how far the species composition in markets reflects the general organising principles of community structure in terms of frequency and abundance relationships.

M Puit; A Huart; P Leroy; I N French Nsangou
January 1, 2004

The aim of this study was to do surveys about bush meat networks around urban centers near the Monte Alen National Park in Equatorial Guinea.

J Cano, P J Berzosa, J Roche, J M Rubio, E Moyano, A Guerra-Neira, H Brochero, M Mico, M Edu, and A Benito
March 7, 2004

The current study was performed on the Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) with the aim of establishing a rapid assessment technique for mapping malaria risk and measuring vector densities. Human bait collection, tent traps, light traps, indoor resting collection, and window exit traps were used to collect Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus, the two anopheline species involved in malaria transmission in this island. Capture data were used to compare differences in the behavior and vectorial capacity of An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Differences in the two species of mosquitoes were found in relation to the season and trapping methods used. Entomological inoculation rates (EIR) for Plasmodium falciparum were calculated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with individual anopheline mosquitoes from human bait collections in two villages during the dry and rainy seasons. P. falciparum sporozoites were detected from both dissected heads/thorax and abdomens of both species.

J P Gonzalez Kirchner
April 8, 2004

The Press's guenon (Cercopithecus preussi) is considered to be one of the most threatened African primates. There is little information on the ecology and status of this primate on Bioko island, where it is found in the form of an endemic subspecies. This article discusses the habitat preferences and threats to survival for this primate.

International Monetary Fund
Wiegand, Johannes
January 1, 2004

This paper discusses fiscal surveillance criteria for the countries of the Central African Monetary and Economic Union (CEMAC), most of which depend heavily on oil exports. At present, the CEMAC's macroeconomic surveillance exercise sets as fiscal target a floor on the basic budgetary balance. This appears inadequate, for at least two reasons. First, fluctuations in oil prices and, hence, oil receipts obscure the underlying fiscal stance. Second, oil resources are limited, which suggests that some of today's oil receipts should be saved to finance future consumption. The paper develops easy-to-calculate indicators that take both aspects into account. A retrospective analysis based on these alternative indicators reveals that in recent years, the CEMAC's surveillance exercise has tended to accommodate stances of fiscal policy that are at odds with sound management of oil wealth.

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 15-22
G Tudo et al.
January 1, 2004

A study conducted in five districts in Equatorial Guinea, March 1999 to February 2001, to determine tuberculosis drug resistance among new and previously treated cases, the risk factors associated with resistance, and the mutations associated with isoniazid and rifampicin (katG, inhA and rpoB genes) resistance, and to genotype resistant strains.

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